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Wie baue ich einen Bunker? Was kostet ein Bunker? Schützt ein Bunker vor Atombombe? Gibt es Bunker in Deutschland?

Shelter construction

The German Shelter Center (DSZ) is your contact for the private construction of bunkers in Germany. Our service areas are divided into:

  • Shelter Advice

  • Shelter planning

  • Sales of shelter components

  • Assembly of shelter components

We offer our customers a safe haven within their own four walls.


Construction of bunkers and shelters

Schutzraum Aufbau

Structure and components

Shelters, nuclear shelters and air raid shelters essentially consist of a thick reinforced concrete shell, the entrances and exits of which are secured with special, armored doors.

To ensure a safe air supply, the shelters are equipped with a special ventilation system with a gas filter, which can be operated both electrically and manually in an emergency.

Shelters are also equipped with an emergency exit in case the exit via the shelter door is blocked.

  1. Shelter cover

    • made of reinforced concrete

  2. Shelter lock

    • Armoured door (PT)

    • Pressure door (DT)

  3. Toilet cubicle with dry toilet

  4. Shelter ventilation system

    • Explosion protection valve with pre-filter (air inlet)

    • Overpressure / explosion protection valve (air outlet)

    • fan

    • Gas filter (activated carbon filter)

  5. Emergency exit

    • Armoured cover (PD)

  6. Berths

How do I build a shelter/bunker in my basement in Germany? Can I build a bunker in Bavaria? Do I need a building permit for a shelter?

Components of a shelter


Legal requirements

In 2007, the German federal government, in agreement with the states, decided to finally abandon the construction and maintenance of public shelters and not to promote them any further. [41]

Since then, the German Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK) has not issued any legal requirements or approvals for the construction of shelters in Germany.

German Shelter Center

Since there is currently no legal framework for the construction of shelters in Germany, the German Shelter Center (DSZ) plans the shelter facilities according to the current, long-standing, tried and tested technical instructions for the mandatory construction of shelters (TWP 1984) of the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection .

Buy a bunker in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Rhineland-Palatinate, shelter nearby, air raid shelter during the war

Shelter construction

The construction of shelters can be divided into the following categories:

  • Construction of a shelter within a building during house construction

  • Construction of a shelter outside an existing building

  • Conversion of an existing room into a shelter

Schutzraum Bau

Construction of a new bunker / shelter within a building during house construction

The most cost-effective option for building a shelter in your own home is to plan the shelter as a separate “basement compartment” during the shell construction of the new building.

Since the exterior basement walls are made of concrete anyway during new construction, the walls in the area of the shelter can be made thicker without much additional effort.

At the same time, the other shelter walls, the armored door, the armored cover with emergency exit and the necessary wall penetrations can be planned and cast in concrete.

Before the basement ceiling/shelter ceiling is concreted, the armored door, the pressure door and the armored cover can be poured with concrete. The advantage of this is that the armored door (200 kg in unconcreted state) can be positioned and installed directly in the basement using the construction crane.

The shelter is therefore located directly in the basement of the house and can be used as a cellar compartment or as a safe storage place in peacetime.

The integrated shelter in the basement during the construction of a new building is the simplest and most cost-effective way to build a shelter.

Single-family house with shelter in the basement

Construction of a new bunker / shelter outside an existing building

Building a shelter outside an existing building is more complex and expensive than building a shelter during the construction of a house.

In order to implement the construction project, a building permit for the construction of a basement is usually required. The excavation pit can then be dug and the shelter concreted and built.

If you want to build a fully-equipped shelter in accordance with Swiss standards on your existing house/building, shelters can be created by subsequently adding extensions to the basement.

Alternatively, it is possible to build a shelter on the property independently of existing buildings. The new building can be in the garden, for example, or can also be used as the foundation for a garage.

Video on installing a PT1 armored door

Conversion of an existing room into a shelter

This is the case if you want to build a bunker/shelter on your existing house/building and no additional extension or new construction is possible on the property.

The difficulty with subsequent basement conversion is transporting the very heavy shelter components into the existing basement and installing them there. In most cases, it is not possible to transport the bulky standard PT1 armored door, which weighs 200 kg, into the basement. In addition, the existing basement walls are not sufficiently dimensioned to meet the requirements of a basic shelter.

If basic shelters cannot be realized, temporary shelters offer an alternative.

In a makeshift shelter, an existing basement room is reinforced and converted into a bunker/shelter. The weakest points in the basement are the doors and windows. The doors of existing basements are rarely gas-tight and do not offer protection against pressure and explosions. The window glazing is particularly dangerous. Even low pressure loads can cause window panes to burst, throwing glass splinters into the room.

With the help of special protective covers, basement windows can be equipped so that the shelter occupants are protected from pressure waves, (glass) splinters and, in combination with a ventilation system, from nuclear, biological and chemical warfare agents in the event of an incident.


In peacetime, the lid is open, allowing the window to be used in the usual way.

Event times

In the event of a disaster or attack, the light shaft can be filled with sandbags and the lid closed. The lid can optionally be equipped with a connection for an ABC ventilation system, which allows outside air to be drawn in and filtered. The lid thus offers protection against pressure waves, (glass) splinters and, in combination with a ventilation system, against nuclear, biological and chemical warfare agents.

If the building is (partially) damaged by external influences so that people may no longer be able to leave the basement, the lid can be opened, the sandbags removed and the building can be left via the light shaft (emergency exit).

Protective cover

The doors for temporary shelters (class 3) are usually replaced with gas-tight, pressure-resistant sheet steel doors. For the dual use of the shelter as a panic room, these doors can also be planned and installed as burglar-resistant (RC1 - RC7) and bullet-resistant (FB1-FB7).

If a higher level of protection is required, interior walls can be built with concrete formwork blocks and the ceilings reinforced with supports (class 2). Pressure doors and armored covers are usually installed, which offer better protection against radioactive radiation as well as against conventional and secondary weapons effects.

The following table provides an overview of the scope of protection and the construction methods of shelters and temporary shelters:

Shelter and makeshift shelter

Overview of shelter classes

The table shows that the basic shelter offers the best level of protection compared to the makeshift shelters.

By converting it into a makeshift shelter with a special door, ventilation system with gas filter and locking windows, much better protection is possible than a conventional cellar offers.

The costs depend largely on the specific circumstances and the desired level of protection.

No house building without shelter

Basically, the construction of a shelter/bunker should be considered when building a house. This is a unique opportunity to build a shelter with full protection in an uncomplicated and cost-effective manner.

The costs for building a shelter during house construction depend on the size of the shelter and are in the range of approximately €40,000.

We would be happy to advise you without obligation about the necessary construction measures and the required components.


Shelter planning

The shelters and bunkers are planned, measured and dimensioned by the German Shelter Center (DSZ) according to the current technical instructions for the construction and dimensioning of shelter structures (TWK 2017) of the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection.

The shelter planning can be divided into the following steps:

  1. Initial concept taking into account the circumstances

  2. Dimensioning and design of the required wall thicknesses

  3. Detailed planning of the shelter according to Swiss directive TWP 1984

  4. Static calculation of the shelter according to Swiss directive TWK 2017

Schutzraum Planung

The Swiss Directive for the Construction and Dimensioning of Shelter Structures (TWK 2017) deals with the construction and dimensioning of protective structures taking into account the effects of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons as well as the collateral effects of conventional weapons.

The protective structures/nuclear shelters must provide protection against the effects of modern weapons. The main hazard here is the mechanical effects (air blast, earth blast) of nuclear weapons at a distance from the explosion center at which an air blast of 100 kN/m² (1 bar) is released.

The design against nuclear radiation determines the component thicknesses required to protect against primary radiation. The component thicknesses determined in this way also ensure protection against other weapon effects such as:

  • Nuclear radiation due to radioactive fallout

  • Mechanical impacts from splinters and vibrations

  • Fire effects

  • Effects of chemical warfare agents (tightness of the protective shell)

How do I build a nuclear shelter? How thick are the walls of a bunker?

Air blast propagation of a nuclear explosion with blast point on the ground (TW Schock 2021)

The required thickness of the reinforced concrete walls and ceilings of shelters/nuclear bunkers depends on the individual circumstances.

For Class 1 nuclear shelters/shelter structures, the minimum component thickness of the shelter shell must not be less than:

• 30 cm minimum ceiling thickness
• 30 cm minimum external wall thickness

How thick must the bunker wall / shelter wall and ceiling be? Thickness of shelter walls, wall thickness of bunkers

Required ceiling thickness for shelter structures under buildings (TWK 2017)

Based on the detailed planning, the static calculation of the shelter can be carried out in accordance with the Technical Instruction TWK 2017, taking the building's statics into account. The German Shelter Center is working with an engineering firm that specializes, among other things, in the structural planning of shelters.

We will provide you with the detailed planning with the static calculation of your shelter, reinforcement sketches, position/overview sketches, reinforcement plans and steel lists for statics.

Schutzraum Wartung

Upkeep and maintenance of a shelter

The owners of a private bunker/shelter usually carry out simple maintenance work themselves. This includes, for example, cleaning the shelter and its components.

The following video illustrates the maintenance work.

Video on maintaining a shelter


Shelter maintenance


6 steps to your own bunker / shelter

Wie baue ich einen Bunker? Beratung zum Schutzraumbau in ganz Deutschland. Das Schutzraumkonzepte in München und Bayern



Simply contact us using the contact form and receive non-binding and discreet advice for your own shelter. We will find out about your individual requirements and wishes.

Based on this, we can provide you with an offer for the necessary shelter components and shelter planning.



Concept development and detailed planning

When planning the shelter, an individual shelter concept is created for you. Based on your building floor plan, we plan a cost-effective arrangement of the shelter shell and position the shelter components in a sensible arrangement. The planning takes place in direct consultation between us and your architect .

We will design your shelter according to the latest Swiss standards for mandatory shelter construction (TWP), taking into account conventional, nuclear, chemical, biological and secondary weapon effects.

You will then receive the technical drawings and dimensioned floor plans for your shelter.

Image by Scott Graham


Static calculation

The planned shelter can then be statically calculated by our structural engineer Dipl. Ing. (Univ.) taking the building's statics into account in accordance with the current Swiss directive TWK2017.

The calculation is based on the risk of mechanical effects (air blast, earth tremor) from nuclear weapons in the load case 100 kN/m² , protection against primary radiation, nuclear radiation due to radioactive fallout, mechanical effects due to splinters and vibrations, fire effects and chemical warfare agents.

You will also receive position/overview/reinforcement sketches with reinforcement plans and steel lists for your individual construction project.

Transport und Aufbau von Schutz Anlagen, Behelfsschutzraum. Was machen bei Atomangriff? Was machen im Krieg?


Delivery of shelter components

All necessary components for the shelter construction are tested, packaged and shipped in Switzerland.

The shelter components are then delivered directly to the installation site by a shipping company on the desired date, following direct consultation.

Stahl und Beton für Bunkerbau in Bayern, Sachsen, München, Hamburg, Augsburg mit Baufirma Bunker bauen geheim


Concrete work and installation of wall components

Based on the floor plans and specifications we provide, a construction company of your choice can form and concrete the shelter shell with finishes.

We provide the construction company with appropriate installation instructions and assembly videos for setting and concreting the armored door and armored cover.


Assembly of the shelter components

As soon as the shell and electrical system are completed, all other components such as the ventilation system, toilet cubicles, berths, etc. can be assembled and installed.


The components can be installed either by one of our fitters , a local fitter of your choice or, depending on your technical skills, by you yourself. You will also receive comprehensive installation instructions from us.

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